GTAP-InVEST User Guide

1. Introduction

This is the User Guide for GTAP-InVEST, a new earth-economy model introduced in “Investing in nature can improve equity and economic returns” (Johnson et al. 2023, PNAS). The content here originally derived from the supplemental information document included with PNAS article. However, development on the model is progressing rapidly, so please refer to this document, which will remain up-to-date. For additional details, please see the GTAP-InVEST Github repository ( All code and results of the model are available and licensed under a permissive open-source license. Full results may be downloaded at